make up natural cara make up make up tutorial make up korea make up minimalis make up artis make up mata belajar make up make up wardah alat make up makeup forever indonesia makeup artist jakarta tips make up barbie make up natural make up make up wajah make up pesta make up syahrini makeup mata makeup minimalis peralatan make up make up cantik make up mac make up kit jual make up make up sederhana perlengkapan make up gambar make up vidio make up cara makeup minimalis wardah make up make up pac make up glamour cara memakai makeup make up panggung harga make up make up modern make up alami make up dasar pixy make up make up muslimah make up oriflame make up jepang makeover cosmetic make up ultima make up sariayu grosir make up makeup fantasi makeup pesta tas makeup langkah make up make up pria make up malam alat makeup tahapan make up produk make up shading make up mak up make up kebaya make up jilbab make up inez make up simpel contoh make up cara ber makeup makeup wajah tanpa make up make up terbaru toko make up mac makeup indonesia make up soft urutan make up trik make up makeover makeup brand gusnaldi make up paket make up panduan make up jual makeup brush make up bagus alat2 make up make up gusnaldi aplikasi make up alat alat makeup dasar make up inez make up peralatan makeup make up wanita make up berjilbab make up tebal sejarah make up make up maybeline make up branded make up siang tata cara makeup reseller make up make up muslim make up maybelin warna make up tips make up artist rias make up make up mata make up artis belajar make up make up artist kursus make up kuas make up make up forever indonesia jual make up mac indonesia make up make up artist indonesia harga make up forever jual make up online make up pac make up forever jakarta make up oriflame jual make up forever make up online shop indonesia harga make up sekolah make up grosir make up harga make up maybelline jual make up murah make up terbaru mak up mac make up indonesia sofia make up make up kit murah mac makeup indonesia produk make up jual make up kit make up store indonesia make up forever academy jakarta toko make up online jual make up set jual make up mac make up beauty jual make up branded produk make up mac make up forever harga make up mac indonesia produk make up artis jual make up palette produk make up forever make up palette murah before after make up pengantin before after make up sendiri before n after hasil makeup contoh make up karakter contoh riasan pengantin before n after harga make up wisuda harga make up artist harga make up forever make up wisuda rias wisuda di jogja Daftar harga make up forever daftar harga make up mac daftar harga kosmetik make up forever makeup wisuda harga makeup wisuda kursus make up di yogyakarta kursus make up di jogja kursus make up jogja kursus make up yogyakarta kursus kecantikan di yogyakarta kursus kecantikan di jogja kursus make up artist di jogja kursus rias pengantin di jogja kursus rias di yogyakarta kursus tata rias di yogyakarta rias pengantin muslim jogja jasa kreasi jilbab wisuda yogyakarta jasa rias make up wisuda murah bagus bisa dpanggil tempat make uf di jigja yang bagus rias wisuda murah dan berkualitas yogyakarta pakar kreasi jilbab di jogja make uper natural yogya make up wisuda hijab area jogja make up dan kreasi jilbab yang bagus di jogja jasa make up natural untuk wisuda jogja makeup jogja make up jogja makeup yogyakarta make up yogyakarta makeup wisuda jogja make up wisuda jogja make up wisuda yogyakarta makeup wisuda yogyakarta
Sunday January 23, 2022
Welcome, Guest
Username: Password: Remember me
  • Page:
  • 1
  • 2

TOPIC: Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys?

Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 09 Nov 2005 02:33 #1

In my short career of 3 yrs I found what I believe to be 3 cases of WLD, all in donkeys (2 miniatures 1 full grown). I was wondering if anyone found a higher incidence in donkeys as I have yet to see a case in one of my clients horses. I have found their white line to be very chaulky. In 2 cases it was deep down and the hoof capsule was distorted. I didn't do anything drastic. just cleaned out the foot and asked them to have the vet to have a look. I am fairly confident that I was dealing with WLD, I just would feel better if I had a vet to back me up when I have a donkey lame with half his foot missing. Unfortunately not one case followed up with the vet, and I worry about the donkeys. What should I do for the little guys? Do you disinfect your tools after dealing with such cases?(I did)
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 09 Nov 2005 21:17 #2

  • kanderso
  • kanderso's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 247
  • Karma: 0
horseshoeinangel wrote:
In my short career of 3 yrs I found what I believe to be 3 cases of WLD, all in donkeys (2 miniatures 1 full grown). I was wondering if anyone found a higher incidence in donkeys as I have yet to see a case in one of my clients horses. I have found their white line to be very chaulky. In 2 cases it was deep down and the hoof capsule was distorted. I didn't do anything drastic. just cleaned out the foot and asked them to have the vet to have a look. I am fairly confident that I was dealing with WLD, I just would feel better if I had a vet to back me up when I have a donkey lame with half his foot missing. Unfortunately not one case followed up with the vet, and I worry about the donkeys. What should I do for the little guys? Do you disinfect your tools after dealing with such cases?(I did)

From what I can tell from my contacts with other donkey and mule owners, the hooves of longears don't always do well in soft, wet conditions. Mammoths in particular seem to have a lot of thrush/fungus problems, although it's certainly not limited to Mammoths.

I seem to have lucked out with my current donkey, since he's only had one hoof abscess in 14 years. I have a mule however, who seems to be the queen of the hoof abscess, although a friend of mine has a 15.3 hand Mammoth jennet who might just be taking over the crown this year. :-/

The incidence of hoof abscesses and fungus infections seems to be related. I'm currently experimenting with some of Pete Ramey's barefoot ideas, although as of right now the short trims coupled with 2 very rainy months aren't working out all that well.

I'm also experimenting with adding higher levels of copper and zinc to their diets, since our forages are deficient, and I'm not sure that the mineral supplements I've been feeding have actually been bringing them up to the minimum levels.

For some reason the hoof problems in longears vary considerably between individuals, though. I had a pair of standards, full brother and sister, and the jack had way more hoof abscesses in his lifetime than the jennet, even though the jennet had been foundered and the entire front half of her hoof wall was detached.

All I do for WLD is dig it out and keep it dug out until the wall grows out.

Kris
--
Kris Anderson
Williamstown, MA
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 17 Nov 2005 17:08 #3

All I know is that the donkeys that I have worked on with WLD have been poorly managed. Poorly managed in Virginia, whether horse or donkey, usually means the presence of WLD.
Jake
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 31 Jan 2006 20:29 #4

  • Jhubbard
  • Jhubbard's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Member
  • Posts: 10
  • Karma: 0
I see it all the time in donkeys.

Jason
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 11 Feb 2006 10:48 #5

  • tbloomer
  • tbloomer's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Master
  • Posts: 4622
  • Thank you received: 20
  • Karma: 1
Although there SEEMS to be a higher incidence of WLD in donkeys, I believe that there is also a higher incidence of neglect. Every donkey that I have encountered with WLD has been severely neglected. Once I get them into a regular hoofcare regiment, the problem goes away. Usually the donkey is also foundered - also due to neglect - overfeeding. Donkeys were designed by nature to live on dry ground with very little forrage. Put a donkey on pasture and it will founder eventually. Donkeys have a much lower energy requirement than horses and a much lower tolerance for over feeding.

'Nuther problem with donkeys is that they SEEM to grow less hoof per year than horses. So if a donkey has WLD, the fungus usually consumes the horn faster than it grows. Therefore it takes longer for them to recover from the disease because it takes longer for them to grow a new hoof. The sound donkeys that I have cared for usually go 3 or 4 months between trims. YMMV.

Tom Bloomer, CF
Tom Bloomer
http://blackburnforge.com
302-222-6404


Here's the deal. I'm trying to keep it simple.
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 07 Jan 2007 21:54 #6

  • Jhubbard
  • Jhubbard's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Member
  • Posts: 10
  • Karma: 0
Tom,

Couldn't agree more. Lots of neglect with the donkeys.

Jason
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 08 Jan 2007 23:40 #7

With donkeys they are missing one layer of hoof. There is the stratum externum, stratum medium, and stratum internum. I'm pretty sure they are missing the stratum internum.....I'm not 100% on this though. But Learnt this in school as an old farrier that would frequent the school with teaching and just visiting, has donkeys and mules and knows them darn well.
But yes...I cannot for the life of me remember what layer it is! wow is that bothering me. But anyways, whatever layer they are missing it makes them more prone to getting WLD.
Kimberley Tuka
Maple Ridge, BC
Canada, Eh!
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 13 Jan 2007 22:28 #8

Steel N Sole wrote:
With donkeys they are missing one layer of hoof. There is the stratum externum, stratum medium, and stratum internum.
stratum externum = Hoof wall exterior
stratum medium = Inner of the Hoof
stratum internum = Hoof Wall Lamina
Steel N Sole wrote:
I'm pretty sure they are missing the stratum internum.....I'm not 100% on this though.
White Line Disease, is a funny thing, being that The fungus that causes
WLD, eats the stratum internum. The Lamina of the hoof wall, which is
connected to the Lamina of the Third Phalanx (Coffin bone).
Quoted from: Burney Chapman, Equine Foot Theraputics
A video on Onychomycosis (WLD) a must see.
Steel N Sole wrote:
But Learnt this in school as an old farrier that would frequent the school with teaching and just visiting, has donkeys and mules and knows them darn well.
But yes...I cannot for the life of me remember what layer it is! wow is that bothering me. But anyways, whatever layer they are missing it makes them more prone to getting WLD.
That Old Fella could be Hank McEwan, and he does own mules, and he taught
at the collage for a number of years, 15 or so yrs ago,
and inducted into the HorseShoers Hall of fame.

And as I respect all of the above,
He is a Cantankerous Old Fella, and opinionated.
And although you may have misquoted him,
Not everything he says is the truth.

Eg. He said once as he dropped the horses foot, and look directly at me,
". . . and we've been shoeing horses like that since Christ was a Cowboy!"
But:
1. Jesus did ride a Donkey once, but that does not make him a cowboy.
2. Jesus lived 2,000 yrs ago.
. . . . Correct me if I'm wrong, but steel horseshoes have not been around that long.

Hoof Note: Hank was just trying to bug me, this I know.

But thats OK, I even worked with him a couple of yrs after that.

Hi Hank, How ya doing ?

P.S. As stated above, mis-management, or poor ground conditions,
is the biggest cause of WLD. (Likely)
Bradley SaintJohn

The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 14 Jan 2007 02:29 #9

  • Rick Burten
  • Rick Burten's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Enforcer
  • Posts: 9082
  • Thank you received: 50
  • Karma: 8
Bradley-1stChoice wrote:
White Line Disease, is a funny thing, being that The fungus that causes
WLD, eats the stratum internum. The Lamina of the hoof wall, which is
connected to the Lamina of the Third Phalanx (Coffin bone).
Quoted from: Burney Chapman, Equine Foot Theraputics
A video on Onychomycosis (WLD) a must see.
Actually, that is not quite accurate.

"White Line Disease, as it is commonly referred to, has been labeled by the late Texas farrier Burney Chapman as "Onychomycosis" - the Latin root, "onyx," meaning nail; "myke" a fungus, and "osis" being condition of. To define this condition as a "disease" sends most horseowners into a state of panic. A disease and an infection are two different things. An infection, as defined by Tabor's Medical Dictionary, is "A state in which the body, or part of it, is invaded by a pathogenic agent (microorganism or virus) which, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces effects which are injurious." The name White Line Disease is also misleading because the white line structure itself (zona lamellatum) is only involved in advanced cases. Basically, this hoof wall condition is caused by one or more fungi acting alone or in combination with bacteria that infiltrate, feed upon and destroy the keratin tissue of the hoof wall."

Rick
Rick Burten PF

In the immortal words of Ron White: "But let me tell you something, folks: You can't fix S-tupid. There's not a pill you can take; there's not a class you can go to. S-tupid is forever."
."


Je pense donc je suis
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 14 Jan 2007 08:00 #10

Hey Rick if you weren’t so stiff, you'd be fun to play with.

Rick Burten]Actually, that is not quite accurate.
"White Line Disease, as it is commonly referred to, has been labeled by the late Texas farrier Burney Chapman as "Onychomycosis"[/QUOTE]I believe that is what I said.

Rick Burten wrote:
To define this condition as a "disease" sends most horseowners into a state of panic.
I trim & shoe for Folks that have a good grasp on the English Language,
and know how to spell, and don't get into a state of panic, for word choices.
Rick Burten wrote:
A disease and an infection are two different things.
Disease
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A disease or medical condition is an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress . . .

Infection
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. In infection, the infecting organism seeks to utilize the host's resources in order to multiply (usually at the expense of the host). The infecting organism, or pathogen, interferes with the normal functioning of the host and can lead to chronic wounds, gangrene, loss of an infected limb, and even death. . . Colloquially, a pathogen is usually considered a microscopic organism though the definition is broader, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses, prions, and viroids. A symbiosis between parasite and host, whereby the relationship is beneficial for the former but detrimental to the latter, is characterised as parasitism. The branch of medicine that focuses on infections and pathogens is infectious disease.Rick Burten wrote:
A disease and an infection are two different things. -- Rick, you are not very good at splitting hairs
Pathogen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. The term is most often used for agents that disrupt the normal physiology of a multicellular animal or plant. However, pathogens can infect unicellular organisms from all of the biological kingdoms. The term pathogen is derived from the Greek π wrote:
soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen.[/B]


Onychomycosis
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A toenail affected by Onychomycosis. Onychomycosis means fungal infection of the nails. It represents up to 20% of all nail disorders.This condition may affect toe- or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common

Rick Burten wrote:
The name White Line Disease is also misleading because the white line structure itself (zona lamellatum) is only involved in advanced cases. Basically, this hoof wall condition . . . feed upon and destroy the keratin tissue of the hoof wall." Rick
. . .is only involved in advanced cases, is when the horse owner should be in a state of panic.


© 2006-2007 Merriam-Webster, Incorporated

Main Entry: dis·ease
Pronunciation: di-'zEz
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English disese, from Anglo-French desease, desaise, from des- dis- + eise ease
1 obsolete : TROUBLE
2 : a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning and is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms


Dermatophyte
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A dermatophyte is a parasitic fungus upon the skin. The term embraces the imperfect fungi of the genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton.

Dermatophyte
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dermatophytes (name based on the Greek for 'skin plants') are a common label for a group of three types of fungus that commonly cause skin disease in animals and humans. These anamorphic (a***ual or imperfect) genera are: Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton. There are about 40 species in these three genera. Species capable of reproducing ***ually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. (See Teleomorph, anamorph and holomorph for more information on this type of fungal life cycle).

Dermatophytes cause infections of the skin, hair and nails due to their ability to obtain nutrients from keratinized material.
It can also eat Steel ! yippy

Hey Rick
Lets Get Microscopic
Bradley SaintJohn

The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 14 Jan 2007 09:03 #11

  • ThomasRideandDrive
  • ThomasRideandDrive's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Master
  • Equestrian Centre Proprietor, Northumberland, UK
  • Posts: 2514
  • Thank you received: 2
  • Karma: 1
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
I'm sure Rick will respond fully but just wanted to draw your attention to the inappropriateness of using Wilkipedia as an information source.

You should be aware that not only is it free but anyone can edit what is held there. This means that there is a heck of a lot of innacurate misinformation there!

So I somehow doubt that Rick (when he appears) will be impressed by your reference points.
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 14 Jan 2007 14:01 #12

  • Steve Swain
  • Steve Swain's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 229
  • Karma: 0
I've been wondering, the finger nail condition humans get that is treated with Lamisil. Everyone remember the diggeryte commercials? Is there any corralation(sp) between that and whiteline in a horse? I have heard that the Lamisil is dang expensive so it might be cost prohibative.
I stink, therefore I am.............a farrier.
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 14 Jan 2007 14:06 #13

  • Rick Burten
  • Rick Burten's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Enforcer
  • Posts: 9082
  • Thank you received: 50
  • Karma: 8
Bradley-1stChoice wrote:
Hey Rick if you weren’t so stiff, you'd be fun to play with.
First you'd have to be able to understand the game. Demonstrably, you don't.

Originally Posted by Rick Burten:
Actually, that is not quite accurate.
"White Line Disease, as it is commonly referred to, has been labeled by the late Texas farrier Burney Chapman as "Onychomycosis"

(Bradley replies)I believe that is what I said.

Well, there you go. I wasn't calling that part of your reply into account, I was merely "setting the stage". In your zeal to try and engage in some less than witty reparte' with me, you managed to miss the important part of my response. Since you missed it, it is the part that is underlined and boldened.
I trim & shoe for Folks that have a good grasp on the English Language,
and know how to spell, and don't get into a state of panic, for word choices.
Well thats a good thing because since you demonstrably don't know much about what your are talking about, they need to have the ability to not panic when they find out you have been feeding them misinformation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
<deletia>
If this is you main source of information, then I suggest you try some other resource. Widipedia is far from the best or even most accurate source of information(Thomas has explained why, in terms even you should be able to understand)though in this case, it isn't too bad.
© 2006-2007 Merriam-Webster, Incorporated
<deletia>
There you go Bradly, you've located and attempted to use a more reliable, recognized resource/information data base. As Red would say, "Good on you".
Dermatophyte
Not sure where you are going with this rather mundane definition/non-lecture, but I'm sure you will bore us with your intentions. Do be sure to explain how this part of your discourse is germane to the subject at hand.
While we are on the subject of dermatophytes, a few additional questions

1. How are dermatophytes classified?
2. How many classes of dermatophytes have been found?
3. What are those classifications?
4. Which, if any, of the Dermatophytes appear to be involved in WLD?
5. Could non-dermatophytic fungi be involved in WLD? Why or why not?
6. If Dermatophytes are indeed involved in the WLD process, which one among them might you expect to find in most every instance?

But I digress.

You erroneously stated that the pathogens involved in WLD, "eats the stratum internum. The Lamina of the hoof wall, "(your precise words, right?). You statement is inaccurate, false, misleading, and shows the general level of your disinterest and lack of knowledge on the subject . If you are this inaccurate in the other aspects of your work, one can only wonder at the resilience of the horses in your care are who surviving, if not thriving, inspite of you, rather than because of you.

But again, I digress. "the white line structure itself (zona lamellatum) is only involved in advanced cases." Because this is an important fact, I am willing to explain to you how the zona lamellatum becomes involved, secondarily, in advanced cases of WLD. The pathogens involved in the infection, by their action of lysing the keratin on the innermost layer of the stratum medium, cause the bond/attachment between the stratum medium and the insensitive(aka horny)laminae to be destroyed. In the early stages of the infection, when the area involved is small, this poses little to no threat to the integrity of the structures of the hoof. As the infection advances and more keratin is disolved, the hoof comes under greater and greater stress because the coffin bone is destabilized. (Extra credit: Why? Its OK if you don'tknow the answer, I'll be happy to explain the Why to you if necessary). At no point during the infective process, do the pathogens actually attack the laminae(sensitive or insensitive)proper. Which is why the laminae are only involved, secondarily, in, as advertised, advanced cases of WLD.

Now, mon ami, perhaps you will regale us with answers to why many conventional treatments for WLD have been much less than successful, why resecting the hoof wall over the affected area, debriding the area and keeping it exposed to light and air has been quite effective, and what kind of shoeing has shown to consistently be the best option in advanced cases of WLD, and why. (Hint: you won't find the answers in Wikipedia.)

If modesty prevents you from further placing the depth and breadth of your knowledge on public display, we'll all understand. :)

And now, nous verrons ce que nous verrons.

Rick
Rick Burten PF

In the immortal words of Ron White: "But let me tell you something, folks: You can't fix S-tupid. There's not a pill you can take; there's not a class you can go to. S-tupid is forever."
."


Je pense donc je suis
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 14 Jan 2007 14:47 #14

  • Rick Burten
  • Rick Burten's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Enforcer
  • Posts: 9082
  • Thank you received: 50
  • Karma: 8
Here's a deeper look at White Line Disease. Its excerpted in part for the sake of our discussion, and as the discussion evolves, more can/will be included. The anatomy section below is included for Bradley's edification.

(The added emphasis points were added by me.)

"White Line Disease - An Update
Stephen E. O'Grady, DVM, MRCVS

White line disease (WLD) is a term used to describe a keratolytic process on the solar surface of the hoof, which is characterized by a separation of the inner zone of the hoof wall (Redden, 1991). The separation occurs in the non-pigmented horn at the junction between the stratum medium and the stratum lamellatum. This separation is invaded by opportunistic bacteria/fungi at the toe, quarter and/or heel leading to infection, which progresses to varying heights and configurations toward the coronet. The disease process occurs secondary to a primary hoof problem such as chronic laminitis, abnormal hoof conformation, hoof imbalance or any other condition that causes a hoof wall separation. The disease has been termed seedy toe, yeast infection, Candida and onychomycosis.
Onychomycosis is a mycotic disease that originates in the nail bed of the human and the dog. In WLD the infection originates at the solar surface of the hoof and migrates proximally approaching the coronary band but never invading it. In many cases of WLD, the pathogens cultured are purely bacterial. Until proven otherwise, onychomycosis may not be the appropriate term when referring to white line disease in the horse.

Anatomy of the hoof wall

The hoof wall consists of three layers; the stratum tectorium (external layer), the stratum medium (the middle layer), and the stratum lamellatum (the inner layer). The stratum tectorium is the thin layer of keratinized cells that give the wall its smooth shiny appearance. The stratum medium forms the bulk of the wall and is the densest part of the hoof wall. It consists of cornified epidermal cells arranged in parallel horny tubules surrounded by intertubular horn which grow distally from the coronary groove to the basal border. In dark hooves it is pigmented except in the deepest layer. The stratum lamellatum arises from the laminae, is nonpigmented, and is responsible for attaching the hoof wall to the third phalanx.
Distally at the sole wall junction, the dermal laminae end in terminal papillae. These papillae are lined by stratum germinativum which produces intertubular horn that fills the spaces between the non pigmented horny laminae. This association forms the bond between the hoof wall and the sole known as the white line . When observed from the solar surface, this white line or white zone is actually yellow in color and is a different consistency than the dorsal hoof wall."

Rick
Rick Burten PF

In the immortal words of Ron White: "But let me tell you something, folks: You can't fix S-tupid. There's not a pill you can take; there's not a class you can go to. S-tupid is forever."
."


Je pense donc je suis
The administrator has disabled public write access.

RE:Higher incidence of WLD in donkeys? 14 Jan 2007 15:22 #15

  • Rick Burten
  • Rick Burten's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Enforcer
  • Posts: 9082
  • Thank you received: 50
  • Karma: 8
Bradley-1stChoice wrote:
Dermatophyte
The term embraces the imperfect fungi of the genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton.

Hey Rick
Lets Get Microscopic
OK, lets.

How many species of each genera are there? Of that number, how many of each can infect man? How many can infect animals? How many can infect both?

These organisms are transmitted:
a. by direct contact
b. indirect contact
c. both a and b
d. none of the above

True or Flase:
Depending on the species the organism may be viable in the environment for up to 15 months.

What are the three methods employed to identify Dermatophytes in the laboratory?

Briefly describe each method.

Since this is a "take home, open book exam", you should be able to answer all the questions correctly. One caveat: if you are going to use Wikipedia as your main or only reference source, you may be disappointed with the results.

Rick
quot homines tot sententiae
Rick Burten PF

In the immortal words of Ron White: "But let me tell you something, folks: You can't fix S-tupid. There's not a pill you can take; there's not a class you can go to. S-tupid is forever."
."


Je pense donc je suis
The administrator has disabled public write access.
  • Page:
  • 1
  • 2

Kunena Birthday Module

  • brianriggs birthday is today
  • canditemby birthday is today
  • cwlindauer birthday is today
  • LilBitOfHeaven birthday is today
  • lonestar birthday is today
  • vincentfarley52 birthday is today
  • alminc11 birthday is in 1 day
  • DABELL24 birthday is in 1 day
  • skelemen birthday is in 1 day
  • hoofdoc28 birthday is in 364 days
  • paulblog556715DE birthday is in 364 days
  • paulc7765BA9B birthday is in 364 days
Time to create page: 0.246 seconds

S5 Box

Register

*
*
*
*
*
*

Fields marked with an asterisk (*) are required.