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TOPIC: check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial

check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 04 Nov 2008 11:35 #1

  • vthorseshoe
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Would someone explain how raising or lowering and angle would have positive or negative effects on the above ligaments...

I think the topic of anatomy is and SHOULD be one of the most important sections on this board for all farriers so lets get it going ...

I would really like to see others post problems they have encountered or questions they have concerning ANATOMY..

How do the tendons or ligaments affect the actions of movement or lock up legs such as in the stifle or how and why does cutting a tendon help or hinder an animal in the short and long run...

Are we only concerned as shoers with the Anatomy below the knee or is it imperative to have a good working knowledge of the Horses Anatomy for the overall skeleton...

TO LET THIS SECTION GO UNUSED is a HUGE LOSS of information/knowledge that is needed in every persons everyday work.

my 2 cents worth ;)
"you may not like what I say" !
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I thought my life had come to a close with Cindy's passing, but there is life after death Thankyou Sharon !

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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 04 Nov 2008 12:57 #2

  • reillyshoe
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Effect of toe and heel elevation on calculated tendon strains in the horse and the influence of the proximal interphalangeal joint.Lawson SE, Chateau H, Pourcelot P, Denoix JM, Crevier-Denoix N.
Centre for Rehabilitation and Engineering Studies, Newcastle University, UK. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The sagittal alteration of hoof balance is a common intervention in horses, with corrective shoeing being one of the most frequently applied methods of managing tendonitis. However, the effect of toe or heel elevation on tendon strains is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the effect of toe and heel wedges on the superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, and the third interosseous muscle or suspensory ligament strains using in vivo data and an accurate subject-specific model. Kinematic data were recorded using invasive markers at the walk and trot. Computerized tomography was then used to create a subject-specific model of an equine distal forelimb and strains were calculated for the superficial digital flexor tendon, the deep digital flexor tendon accessory ligament and the suspensory ligament for seven trials each of normal shoes, and toe and heel elevation. As the proximal interphalangeal joint is often ignored in strain calculations, its influence on the strain calculations was also tested. The deep ligament showed the same results for walk and trot with the heel wedge decreasing peak strain and the toe wedge increasing it. The opposite results were seen in the suspensory ligament and the superficial digital flexor tendon with the heel wedge increasing peak strain and the toe wedge decreasing it. The proximal interphalangeal joint was shown to be influential on the strains calculated with normal shoes and the calculated effect of the wedges. Our results imply that corrective shoeing appears to decrease strain in the tendon being targeted; the possibility of increases in strain in other structures should also be considered.
P
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 04 Nov 2008 12:58 #3

  • reillyshoe
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Influence of shoeing on ground reaction forces and tendon strains in the forelimbs of ponies.Riemersma DJ, van den Bogert AJ, Jansen MO, Schamhardt HC.
Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

Strains in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor muscle (inferior check ligament [ICL]) and the interosseus medius muscle (suspensory ligament [SL]) in the right forelimb of 5 ponies were measured using mercury-in-silastic strain gauges a few hours after implantation. Tendon strains were recorded at the walk with normal flat shoes, egg-bar shoes, a 7 degrees increased hoof angle accomplished by application of a heel-wedge and a 7 degrees decreased hoof angle using a toe-wedge, consecutively. Ground reaction forces were recorded with all 4 shoe types preoperatively and with flat shoes post operatively. The strain patterns of the SDFT, DDFT and SL showed a rapid increase at the beginning of the stance phase, followed by a plateau with a small incline or decline and a rapid decrease at the end of the stance phase. The SDFT had its maximal strain in the first half of the stance phase in all ponies. The DDFT and SL reached their maximal strain in the first half of the stance phase in 2 ponies and in the second half of the stance phase in the other 3 ponies. The ICL was strained maximally in the second half of the stance phase in all ponies. Averaged over all 5 ponies, the maximal strains in the SDFT, DDFT, ICL and SL with normal flat shoes were 2.4, 1.3, 5.4 and 3.7%, respectively. If an egg-bar was applied the mean peak strain in the DDFT was 0.13% lower and strain in the SL was 0.22% higher. With a heel-wedge, strain decreased in the DDFT and ICL (0.19% and 0.4%, respectively) and increased by 0.24% in the SL. A toe-wedge increased strain in the ICL by 0.8%. All changes mentioned were statistically significant (P < 0.1). The changes in tendon strain as a result of different types of shoeing correlated with changes in calculated torque's of the ground reaction force acting on the coffin joint.

PMID: 8706644 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
P
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 04 Nov 2008 13:14 #4

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Deep digital flexor tendon force and digital mechanics in normal ponies and ponies with rotation of the distal phalanx as a sequel to laminitis.McGuigan MP, Walsh TC, Pardoe CH, Day PS, Wilson AM.
Structure and Motion Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK.

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Previous studies have implicated tension in the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) in the rotation of the distal phalanx (DP) after the breakdown of the dorsal laminae caused by laminitis. Howeveer, once the DP has rotated, the DDFT should become shorter, reducing the force it exerts on the DP. OBJECTIVE: To compare DDFT force and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in normal ponies and ponies with rotation of the DP as a sequel to laminitis. METHODS: Six normal ponies (Group 1) and 6 sound ponies with 6-13 degrees of rotation of the DP in relation to the dorsal hoof wall (Group 2) were assessed at trot using forceplate and motion analysis. The force in the DDFT was calculated by assuming that the extending moment at the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint resulting from the GRF was equal to the flexing moment created by the force in the DDFT during the stance phase (inverse dynamics). RESULTS: In early stance, the peak DDFT force (mean+/-s.d.) in the normal ponies was 1.92+/-1.63 N/kg. However, in Group 2, the point of zero moment was palmar to the centre of rotation of the DIP joint for the first 40% of stance and hence DDFT force was zero. Force in the DDFT reached a peak of 10.00+/-3.56 N/kg at 60.7+/-5.6% of stance in Group 1 and 6.41+/-1.37 N/kg at 79.2+/-9.6% of stance in Group 2. CONCLUSIONS: DDFT force in Group 2 laminitic ponies was much reduced until late stance, when it neared normal values. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Further studies of ponies with rotation of the DP as a sequel to laminitis should assist farriery aimed at reducing the force in the DDFT through the breakover phase of stance to protect damaged dorsal laminae.

PMID: 15779630 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
P
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 05 Nov 2008 02:36 #5

In my opinion the most important thing to understand about horses anatomy is recognizing lameness. Another important thing to consider is conformation and what the horse is intended to do. Lets face it not every horse is an athlete, however some horse owners think any horse can do anything right? Heck even some Vets and trainers think this way with no thought or understanding of limitations, conditioning, proper training and riding. Just like us horses are limited to the weakest link in the chain, be it muscling, skeletal structures, strength of tendons and ligaments.

Horses tell us a lot all we need to do is listen. We listen by observing.

We can study anatomy to the point where any of us can recite all the anatomical parts without cue cards, however this is not anywhere as useful as common sense.
Phil Armitage, CF
AFA member 7480

"Anyone who proposes to do good must not expect people to roll stones out of his way, but must accept his lot calmly if they even roll a few more upon it." Albert Schweitzer
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 05 Nov 2008 02:41 #6

  • Chris Rusmisel
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Phil Armitage wrote:
In my opinion the most important thing to understand about horses anatomy is recognizing lameness. Another important thing to consider is conformation and what the horse is intended to do. Lets face it not every horse is an athlete, however some horse owners think any horse can do anything right? Heck even some Vets and trainers think this way with no thought or understanding of limitations, conditioning, proper training and riding. Just like us horses are limited to the weakest link in the chain, be it muscling, skeletal structures, strength of tendons and ligaments.

Horses tell us a lot all we need to do is listen. We listen by observing.

We can study anatomy to the point where any of us can recite all the anatomical parts without cue cards, however this is not anywhere as useful as common sense.

I couldnt agree more. Having strong book knowledge to shoeing everyday and applying that knowledge is two completely differant ball games.
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 05 Nov 2008 23:10 #7

  • Jaye Perry
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Chris Rusmisel wrote:
I couldnt agree more. Having strong book knowledge to shoeing everyday and applying that knowledge is two completely differant ball games.


You can't have one without the other. I can teach a "monkey" to nail shoes on. I cannot teach anatomy, form and function to the "monkey". I cannot teach a cummalation of both to do what is right for a horse on the mats.:rolleyes::rolleyes::rolleyes:
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 05 Nov 2008 23:16 #8

  • Jaye Perry
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Phil Armitage-In my opinion the most important thing to understand about horses anatomy is recognizing lameness.

If one doesn't understand the anatomy, function and form; lameness is of no use.


Another important thing to consider is conformation and what the horse is intended to do.

Comformation? You have to know anatomy, form and function:rolleyes:




Lets face it not every horse is an athlete, however some horse owners think any horse can do anything right? Heck even some Vets and trainers think this way with no thought or understanding of limitations, conditioning, proper training and riding. Just like us horses are limited to the weakest link in the chain, be it muscling, skeletal structures, strength of tendons and ligaments.

Horses tell us a lot all we need to do is listen. We listen by observing

You just like to create headaches! You can't observe if one doesn't know form and function.
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 06 Nov 2008 01:34 #9

  • Chris Rusmisel
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Jaye Perry wrote:
You can't have one without the other. I can teach a "monkey" to nail shoes on. I cannot teach anatomy, form and function to the "monkey". I cannot teach a cummalation of both to do what is right for a horse on the mats.:rolleyes::rolleyes::rolleyes:

I agree with you on that matter but, what I was saying is some people roll anatomy of their tounge like water but dont know which end of the horse is up when it come to shoeing.
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 06 Nov 2008 01:42 #10

  • Jaye Perry
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Chris Rusmisel wrote:
I agree with you on that matter but, what I was saying is some people roll anatomy of their tounge like water but dont know which end of the horse is up when it come to shoeing.

Don't worry about other people's sssssstick!!!

Worry about what you know, what you can assimulate and what you can do for the horse on the mats:cool:
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 06 Nov 2008 19:58 #11

  • Ray_Knightley
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Jaye Perry wrote:
You can't have one without the other. I can teach a "monkey" to nail shoes on. I cannot teach anatomy, form and function to the "monkey". I cannot teach a cummalation of both to do what is right for a horse on the mats.:rolleyes::rolleyes::rolleyes:

That would be great ,if you have a monkey for me ,i would love one!!,not tax no wage just a bunch of bananas ....perfect .i will take two..!!leave the anatomy to the horse and form and function ...to me!!:D


It has more to do withwhat we can do wrong than what we do right ...to remove one problem gives us the next ,the thing lies in seeing how the thing should be and how it should stay as the horse ages and gets used ..

I have always lifted my hat to those with all those great shoes and pad and stuff ,glue and the rest ....great ..but

I raise my hat more to the guy that shoes the horses he has on his books ,generations and those horses stay heathy and age without any hoof or hoof care problems at all ....

we do the best job when some other does the worst ,,,is that it or is it better to care through from day one to the last day??

rayknightley
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 07 Nov 2008 00:05 #12

  • Jaye Perry
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everyhorseisapersontoo.....It has more to do withwhat we can do wrong than what we do right ...to remove one problem gives us the next ,the thing lies in seeing how the thing should be and how it should stay as the horse ages and gets used ..


"Monkeys" can rationalize to a certain point.

An informed "Farrier" can rationalize beyond some things presented if the "FARRIER" is informed!:eek::cool::D
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 07 Nov 2008 03:54 #13

  • vthorseshoe
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Phil without a knowledge of anatomy how would you begin to help a draft like this or how would you decide it is beyond help ?

my 2 cents worth
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"you may not like what I say" !
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"you'll never have any doubts where I stand
quote Cindy Matthews 1948-2006


I thought my life had come to a close with Cindy's passing, but there is life after death Thankyou Sharon !

Bruce Matthews
Southeast...
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 07 Nov 2008 05:13 #14

vthorseshoe wrote:
Phil without a knowledge of anatomy how would you begin to help a draft like this or how would you decide it is beyond help ?

my 2 cents worth

Knowledge of anatomy or not that is not my role as a farrier.

This would depend on how much the owner was willing to spend. Tell me is the horse still around and did the owner do anything to help this horse?
Phil Armitage, CF
AFA member 7480

"Anyone who proposes to do good must not expect people to roll stones out of his way, but must accept his lot calmly if they even roll a few more upon it." Albert Schweitzer
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RE:check ligaments/extensor,DDF and superficial 07 Nov 2008 05:15 #15

  • Rick Talbert
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A comprehensive understanding of anatomy and function should be a prerequisite to shoeing a horse! I heard a certain farrier school owner on TV say that at his school they did not really spend much time on anatomy and that the students could get all that sort of stuff on their own out of a book after they graduate. This statement made me sick to my stomach. Is it any mystery why 90% farrier school graduates don't make 5 years in the business? Most are woefully unprepared to shoe a horse from the start. This is directly related to anatomy. It is not enough to know HOW to do something, it is just as necessary to know WHY. Everything you do under a horse affects the horse one way or another. The only way we know whether or not we are helping and not hurting is our knowledge of functional anatomy. Every nip, every rasp stroke, every hammer blow we take (and just as importantly every one we refrain from taking) should be based on our knowledge of anatomy. Anyone who doesn't take anatomy seriously is someone not to be taken seriously as a professional.
Rick Talbert
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