make up natural cara make up make up tutorial make up korea make up minimalis make up artis make up mata belajar make up make up wardah alat make up makeup forever indonesia makeup artist jakarta tips make up barbie make up natural make up make up wajah make up pesta make up syahrini makeup mata makeup minimalis peralatan make up make up cantik make up mac make up kit jual make up make up sederhana perlengkapan make up gambar make up vidio make up cara makeup minimalis wardah make up make up pac make up glamour cara memakai makeup make up panggung harga make up make up modern make up alami make up dasar pixy make up make up muslimah make up oriflame make up jepang makeover cosmetic make up ultima make up sariayu grosir make up makeup fantasi makeup pesta tas makeup langkah make up make up pria make up malam alat makeup tahapan make up produk make up shading make up mak up make up kebaya make up jilbab make up inez make up simpel contoh make up cara ber makeup makeup wajah tanpa make up make up terbaru toko make up mac makeup indonesia make up soft urutan make up trik make up makeover makeup brand gusnaldi make up paket make up panduan make up jual makeup brush make up bagus alat2 make up make up gusnaldi aplikasi make up alat alat makeup dasar make up inez make up peralatan makeup make up wanita make up berjilbab make up tebal sejarah make up make up maybeline make up branded make up siang tata cara makeup reseller make up make up muslim make up maybelin warna make up tips make up artist rias make up make up mata make up artis belajar make up make up artist kursus make up kuas make up make up forever indonesia jual make up mac indonesia make up make up artist indonesia harga make up forever jual make up online make up pac make up forever jakarta make up oriflame jual make up forever make up online shop indonesia harga make up sekolah make up grosir make up harga make up maybelline jual make up murah make up terbaru mak up mac make up indonesia sofia make up make up kit murah mac makeup indonesia produk make up jual make up kit make up store indonesia make up forever academy jakarta toko make up online jual make up set jual make up mac make up beauty jual make up branded produk make up mac make up forever harga make up mac indonesia produk make up artis jual make up palette produk make up forever make up palette murah before after make up pengantin before after make up sendiri before n after hasil makeup contoh make up karakter contoh riasan pengantin before n after harga make up wisuda harga make up artist harga make up forever make up wisuda rias wisuda di jogja Daftar harga make up forever daftar harga make up mac daftar harga kosmetik make up forever makeup wisuda harga makeup wisuda kursus make up di yogyakarta kursus make up di jogja kursus make up jogja kursus make up yogyakarta kursus kecantikan di yogyakarta kursus kecantikan di jogja kursus make up artist di jogja kursus rias pengantin di jogja kursus rias di yogyakarta kursus tata rias di yogyakarta rias pengantin muslim jogja jasa kreasi jilbab wisuda yogyakarta jasa rias make up wisuda murah bagus bisa dpanggil tempat make uf di jigja yang bagus rias wisuda murah dan berkualitas yogyakarta pakar kreasi jilbab di jogja make uper natural yogya make up wisuda hijab area jogja make up dan kreasi jilbab yang bagus di jogja jasa make up natural untuk wisuda jogja makeup jogja make up jogja makeup yogyakarta make up yogyakarta makeup wisuda jogja make up wisuda jogja make up wisuda yogyakarta makeup wisuda yogyakarta
Wednesday November 22, 2017
10
Jan

Basic Mechanics of the Digit - Transverse View


Written by James Rooney, D.V.M.
Category: Hoof Mechanics and Physics
Hits: 4273

In several other essays on this site I have addressed certain aspects of the shape of the hoof primarily from the lateral or side view. That is, order of course, quite insufficient. We should like to have a full dimensional view: sagittal (the lateral view), cross sectional (transverse), and frontal (looking at the foot from directly above or below). These views are shown in Fig. 1. The gray panel indicates the cross section view (perhaps better called the transverse view) and the blue the frontal view. The lateral or sagittal view, Fig. 3, is in the plane of the page, the olive panel.

rooney_bm_figure_1
Figure 1
rooney_bm_figure_2
Figure 2

 

The material in this essay and in Basic Mechanics of the Digit-2. have been done before, but perhaps a repeat is not a bad thing; besides I like it!.

In the this essay we consider the transverse view.

As everyone surely knows the obvious configuration of the hooves as seen from the front is as shown in Fig. 3; the medial (inside) wall is vertical or very nearly so. The lateral (outside) wall is slanted outward.

rooney_bm_figure_3
Figure 3

Our task here is to explain why this shape. It is quite simple and requires no complicated (or simple) mathematics. A somewhat more difficult analysis is given in the appendix.

rooney_bm_figure_4
Figure 4

Fig.4, a transverse view with the two legs and the eccentric position of the weight, -W, between and exerting a downward and inward pull on the two legs. That action tends to collapse the medial walls of the hoof and slant the lateral walls outward. Since this normal action is always present, we can say that the hoof was “built” in order to have the walls lined up with the forces to be expected. Thus, the medial wall is built in line with the downward compressive force while the lateral wall is built in parallel with the slanting compressive force. In this regard please see, as, well Basic Mechanics of the Digit-1.

Please note, as well, that this configuration assures that the horn tubules in the hoof wall are parallel to the force being experienced by the hoof wall. All this has been expressed in a grievously teleological way, suggesting that the hoof knows what is going to happen and gets ready for it!

We avoid this teleological explanation by examining newborn and otherwise still young animals. These young hooves are nearly symmetrical in the cross section view. The orientation described above is acquired as the animal grows and gains weight and is, therefore, an acquired state, the hoof assuming that shape which best fits the forces applied to it.

Appendix

This appendix gives a more definitive explanation for the shape of the hoof in the transverse view. The footnote may be of interest as well to the geometrically minded.[1]

rooney_bm_figure_5
Figure 5

This looks horrible but really isn’t so bad. We are looking at the horse from the front with the left fore (lf), right fore (rf), center of mass (cm), body weight (-W), and the reaction of the rf (W) to –W. Now by the trickery of vector mechanics we can show that the down motion of the cm can be represented by two force vectors, in red, one to each foreleg. (We are just doing this for the right fore, the dashed red vector to the left fore only indicating that the same thing is repeated there.)

Actually, we use the red vector to the outer part of the right fore hoof and the green vector to the inside part. The vertical force is the same both outer and inner (and in fact all the way across) as indicated by the vertical red and green vectors. The force directed outward, laterally, the horizontal vectors, is larger on the outside of the foot and smaller on the inside. If we move the two resultant vector [2] forces, red and green, down to the right in the picture, it is apparent that we approach rather well the transverse appearance of the hoof.

Footnotes:

[1] The transverse view is mimicked very well by the geometric figure: a trapezium.

[2] A resultant vector is the “result” of adding two vectors together, in this case the vertical vector and the horizontal vector.

S5 Box

Register

*
*
*
*
*
*

Fields marked with an asterisk (*) are required.




www.titangel.su/de.html titan gel